Private militia and armies are a common feature of modern warfare and pose a major threat to peacemaking efforts internationally. However, little analysis and research on those groups currently exist. This publication, the third in a series, seeks to fill this research gap and suggests how the prevalence of private armies, militias and vigilante forces can be curbed. Focusing on militias and private armies active in Mindanao, south of the Philippines, the study addresses the different issues underlying the proliferation of those groups including weak public security or poor education. This publication is one of three produced as part of the HD Centre’s project – Comparative Perspectives on Conflict Management in Asia.